Please read below to understand more about our work regarding LeopardEye plus you can go through the menu to understand more aspects. Human – leopard conflict is at critical levels, if you can help with the sponsorship of camera technology in our system please email or a very easily with “Touching the Mountain”.

“Found in more than sixty countries, if we can make major improvements in leopard conservation we will in fact be protecting a huge amount of forests, mountains and other landscapes” – Jack Kinross (Links to latest updates HERE )

LeopardEye is an initiative of WildTiger

Conservation Technology as a vital tool in human and big cat coexistence strategies… LeopardEye is currently being developed and deployed in human and big cat conflict hotspots in India and Nepal.  We’ll bring a review and update in February 2023, in the meantime please read below to obtain more understanding. 

LeopardEye is the technical application for our monitoring systems. Using remote camera technology which operates in real time data transmission (dynamic) as well as traditional camera trap systems (passive), wildlife and human activity data can be gathered and analyzed according to the requirements of each case.  LeopardEye is also a fusion of tech and people in that human to human communication strategies are a vital component within a concept we use as our main solution basis to reduce human – wildlife conflict and wildlife crime.

WildTiger uses different camera systems according to each situation. Cellular and wireless systems are sometimes combined with passive systems. Other communication including satellite and LoRa are being tested in real time situations in the field. We have been developing hardware best suited to the rugged conditions of Western Nepal and in collaboration with partners this is an evolving aspect of LeopardEye. Early Warning Systems (EWS) can be applied according to circumstance.

Regarding the image above, two weeks earlier a woman had been killed by a big cat in that exact spot. The area is remote hill country and telecommunications are variable.  By receiving the image in real time we were able to alert locals of the threat by having a designated person make sure people stayed away from the location. This event shaped the dynamics of LeopardEye, read below more about the three elements which factor in our evolving strategy to foster coexistence between people and big cats.

The key requirements in reducing attacks by leopards in the first instance are reducing encounters between people and leopards, responding quickly when leopards are close to human settlements and deepening understanding/awareness/education in conflict hotspots. Based on these needs LeopardEye operates on the following three principles:

  • The understanding of big cat behaviour both in general terms and regarding individual leopards and tigers which are involved in or potentially involved in conflict situations is critical to mitigation. The extension of this information into education formats.
  • Strong human to human communication networks within communities and extending to other stakeholders including those involved in wildlife conservation.
  • State of the art technology enabling early warning systems (EWS), deterrents and critical data.

These three elements are applied to add value to Keys to Making Human and Leopard Coexistence Possible.

Within this framework WildTiger advocates a citizen science approach with high community engagement with the aim of improving coexistence with tigers and leopards particularly in areas which historically are highly affected by conflict. A philosophy of prevention as against reaction is key to increasing tolerance as each serious incident dents confidence in coexistence. Indicators of potential serious conflict are therefore high priority in assessment. This improves the human – leopard interface insomuch as people feeling supported promotes a calmer less knee jerk responses. Outreach to promote this understanding is critical to the approach.

Our emphasis on obtaining real time data means we have moved beyond conventional camera trap technology (we still use these systems for initial scouting and fact finding) to deploying units which can bring live streaming and instant video according to motion detection. As mentioned, we use a range of systems depending on the requirements.


Currently we are collaborating with different agencies in India and Nepal in testing and implementing LeopardEye. A key model site under development is a section of the Annapurna Himalaya where direct collaboration with community is being built for the system to not only provide early warning and understanding of leopard behaviour but also integration with the education platform we are developing (more info HERE). You can read more about the Annapurna project from mid October 2022 at the Updates from Jack Kinross HERE. We’ll bring a further report in February 2023.

The system is being used in various ways with other species as well, this tiger photographed in real time meant we could get the information directly to the NTNC rescue team for capture as the big cat had killed three people.

We’ve also used live streaming in remote leopard rehab stations using various systems that can be set up in jungle locations, this means we can monitor the welfare of recovering leopards injured in snares or other.

With regard to the camera technology aspect of LeopardEye, WildTiger expresses a huge thanks to the Katie Adamson Conservation Fund (KACF) for their support during development and implementation. KACF as a conservation body parallels our philosophy that working alongside communities which are facing coexistence challenges is to key to protecting lives of both people and wildlife.

The distribution of coexistence guidelines is also important within the education/awareness aspect to create safety. Below are examples of several guidelines we produce in different languages according to regional and seasonal climatic dynamics:

Another evolving aspect is forensic analysis using genetics. WildTiger works closely with Prajwol Manandhar (image below) of the Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal (CMDN) as he further develops DNA sequencing of the Indian leopard, panthera pardus fusca. Prajwol heads the Kathmandu Leopard Project which is the first genetic based survey of leopards in the region. In a joint initiative, WildTiger collaborated with Prajwol and the Divisional Forest Office in Arghakhanchi District (Nepal) in achieving the first individual identification of a serious conflict leopard with a DNA match obtained from the big cat and a human victim.  WildTiger strongly advocates the use of genetic analysis as a tool in human-wildlife conflict mitigation and combating wildlife crime.  We’ll bring further updates (February 2023) as Prajwol and Jack Kinross collaborate in development and implementation of LeopardEye in appropriate applications.

Prajwol Manandhar of CMDN in the field.  His work developing leopard DNA sequencing is vital for the future of the Indian Leopard, the main sub-species of South Asia.

The key elements need full integration to be effective with LeopardEye enhancing local involvement in the communication of urgent information in highly affected conflict areas. EWS in the form of mass SMS transmissions has been used to help avoid conflict situations involving villagers and big cats as well as elephants. In economically challenged areas phones have been provided to ensure strong communications. Training as to what is relevant information is provided as part of coexistence Strategies and guidelines. Further applying LeopardEye as part of community based monitoring in liaison with local and national authorities as well as partners is a major goal within our coexistence strategies. A component of that is the further development of CMS (Constant Monitoring Systems). CMS is seen as an important application incorporating LeopardEye in combating poaching and wildlife trafficking. There will be an update on 1 February 2023.